 The paper that started it all:
Turing,
Alan M.
(1936),
"On Computable
Numbers, with an Application to
the Entscheidungsproblem",
Proceedings of the London
Mathematical Society, Ser. 2, Vol. 42: 230265.
 Reprinted, with corrections, in
Martin Davis
(ed.),
The Undecidable:
Basic Papers on Undecidable Propositions, Unsolvable Problems
and Computable Functions
(New York: Raven Press, 1965): 116154.

The online version above is best read using Microsoft
Internet Explorer (or any other browser that uses cascaded
style sheets).

Warning: The online version has several
typographical errors!

another
online version!

The formulation of Turing Machines that we are using in CSE 111:
Rapaport, William J.
(1985),
"Turing Machines"
[PDF],
from
Morton L. Schagrin,
Randall R. Dipert,
&
William J. Rapaport,
Logic:
A Computer Approach
(New York: McGrawHill, 1985): 327339.

A good survey, with excellent links to further information:
BarkerPlummer, David;
& the Editors of the SEP
(2003),
"Turing
Machine",
in
Edward N. Zalta (ed.),
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
(Summer 2003 Edition).

Weizenbaum, Joseph
(1976),
Computer Power and Human Reason
(New York: W.H. Freeman).
 Ch. 2 ("Where the Power of the Computer Comes From")
contains a masterful presentation of a Turing Machine implemented with
pebbles and toilet paper!
 This is also an excellent book on the role of computers in
society, by the creator of the
"Eliza" program.

Suber, Peter (1997),
"Turing
Machines"
(a 2part handout; click on "second handout" at the end of part I to
get to part II).

Weintraub, Steven (2004),
"Turing
Machines".

Dewdney, A.K.
(1989),
"Algorithms: Cooking Up Programs",
"Turing Machines: The Simplest Computers", and "Universal Turing
Machines: Computers as Programs", Chs. 1, 28, & 48 from Dewdney's
The Turing Omnibus: 61 Excursions in Computer Science
(Rockville, MD: Computer Science Press).
 Included primarily for Ch. 48 on Universal Turing Machines,
with the earlier chapters included for the sake of completeness.

To find out more about Alan Turing, go to these websites first:
or read his biography:
 Hodges, Alan (2000),
Alan Turing: the Enigma
(revised edition) (New York: Walker and Co.).
 Reviewed by:
Douglas R. Hofstadter,
"Mind, Body and Machine", New York Times Book Review (13 November 1983).
 Reviewed by:
Stephen Toulmin,
"Fall of a
Genius", New York Review of Books (19 January 1984): 34,6.
 See also:
Stern, Howard; & Daston, Lorraine (1984),
"Turing and the System" (letter to the editor, with
Toulmin's reply),
New York Review of Books
(26 April): 5253.
 Reviewed by:
Jeremy Bernstein, "A Portrait of Alan Turing", The New Yorker
(20 January 1986): 78,8187.
or see the play:
 Whitemore, Hugh (1986),
"Breaking the
Code"
 An excerpt appeared as:
Whitemore, Hugh (1988), "The Enigma: Alan Turing Confronts
a Question of Right and Wrong", The Sciences
(MarchApril): 4041.
or read this article from Business Week:
 Just for fun:
Stewart, Ian (1994), "Mathematical Recreations:
A Subway Named Turing", Scientific American
(September): 104,106107.
 Rather more advanced:
Curtis, M.W. (1965),
"A Turing Machine Simulator",
Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery
12(1) (January): 113.