Introduction to Cognitive Science
Lakoff & Johnson's Theory of Metaphor
Last Update: Friday, 20 October 2017
material is highlighted
|"All slang is metaphor, and all metaphor is poetry."
—G.K. Chesterton, Defence of Slang,
cited on p. 24
Winchester, Simon (2012),
"The Mongrel Speech of the Streets",
NY Review of Books (8 March 2012): 24–26.
"Conceptual Metaphor in Everyday Language",
Journal of Philosophy
Metaphors We Live By
University of Chicago Press).
Women, Fire And Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About The Mind
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
"Metaphor and War: The
Metaphor System Used to
Justify War in the Gulf".
"As Advertised: A Review of The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive
Goldstein, Evan R.
"Who Framed George Lakoff?",
Chronicle of Higher Education
54(49) (August 15): B6-B9.
Squires, Roger (1970),
"On One's Mind",
20(81) (October): 347-356.
- An interesting and humorous discussion of various metaphors
for the mind.
"The Mind Is a Metaphor" website
- Rather confusingly organized, but fun to browse;
the link above will take you to a blog about metaphors
- You might find the following news item about this
website of use:
Guernsey, Lisa (2009),
"Computers Track the Elusive Metaphor",
Chronicle of Higher Education
(January 23): A11.
Angier, Natalie (2010),
The Body Takes Them Literally",
New York Times Science Times (2 February): D2
Chorost, Michael (2014),
"Your Brain on Metaphors",
The Chronicle [of Higher Education] Review
61(1) (5 September): B6–B9.
- "Neuroscientists test the theory that your body
shapes your ideas"
Videla, Alvaro (2017),
"Metaphors We Compute By",
Communications of the ACM 60(10) (October): 42–45.
ARGUMENT IS WAR:
Your claims are indefensible.
He attacked every weak point in my argument.
His criticisms were right on target.
I demolished his argument.
I've never won an argument with him.
You disagree? OK, shoot!.
If you use that strategy, he'll wipe you out.
He shot down all my arguments.
TIME IS MONEY:
You're wasting my time.
This gadget will save you hours.
How do you spend your time these days?
That flat tire cost me an hour.
I've invested a lot of time in her.
You need to budget your time.
Is that worth your while?
You don't use your time profitably.
Because money is a limited resource,
and a limited resource is a valuable commodity…
…then, if time is money ("spend time"),
then time is a limited resource ("run out of time"),
and time is a valuable commodity ("lose time")
HAPPY IS UP; SAD IS DOWN:
I'm feeling up.
That boosted my spirits.
My spirits rose.
You're in high spirits.
Thinking about her always gives me a lift.
I'm feeling down.
I fell into a depression.
He's really low these days.
My spirits sank.
Some limitations of metaphors and analogies:
Ecenbarger, William (2009),
"There Oughta Be a Law",
40(4) (July): 92.
- A humorous essay on what happens when metaphors are
Business is food?
Many things are exercise?
Baseball and animals:
Personalities are sports?
People are animals?
Education is laundry?
Is Everything Like an Analogy, or Is Everything a Metaphor?
Jobs Are Physical Objects that Can Be Lost and Found
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